Full Cryopreservation Becoming a More Feasible Reality?

fry

The Sci-Fi future that we thought was so far away is actually nearing and becoming more of a reality everyday. As seen in the animation show Futurama where our young protagonist Fry get frozen in a container and later he gets thawed out one thousand years later into the future, this type of freezing all though maybe not as long is looming among us. We turn to look at this concept becoming more reliable in the field of medicine when it comes to with organs for organ transplants.

One of the main problems with organ transplants is essentially like with food, organs outside of the body have a certain “Shelf life”. Because of this we are losing many organs and money trying to keep these organs only to have them lost. Part of the problem is when chilling organs the problem isn’t chilling them, but getting them rewarmed to use them in a quick manner because ice particles will form if they aren’t unfrozen fast enough and the organ will be lost. Apparently at the University of Michigan have created an innovative way to help increase the viability of the organs. nano

A solution of silica with iron coated nanoparticles seem to be the answer. Essentially how it works is that they would freeze the organs in a process called vitrification where theoretically the organs would be viable for an eternity and when you need to use them, they would use an electromagnetic field, and through the electromagnet waves the nanoparticles would be excited which is called inductive heating. And since the problem is with getting the whole organ heated, they would have the nanoparticles equally but well dispersed and because of this the whole organ would be heated at the same time.

They scaled this and tested with this up to 50 milliliters which brought back a pig’s artery but that is really far from a whole heart. They are planning to do with Rat kidneys but there is still so much to do. The other problem occurs because since the heart has many valves and chambers, dispersing them equally will be harder than a more compacted organ like a kidney so thats one obstacle they need to get around. Although we are a long way away from freezing full bodies like Fry from Futurama, we are getting closer to a future of  full cryopreservation.

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Zika, A new Outlook in Medicine?

zika

Its getting closer and closer to that time again. Its gradually warming and soon our favorite insects will be out and about once more: Mosquitoes….Last year Latin America and eventually parts of the United States were facing quite a vicious outbreak of a virus called Zika. This vector borne virus can be found in infected female mosquitos which go on to bite an individual and infect them with the virus.

This epidemic was becoming quite an epidemic and was part of the scary problem was if a pregnant woman was bitten, her child would experience microcephaly (meaning they would have a significantly smaller than normal head/brain size) which is a very concerning problem. Recently it would seem that the Western Hemisphere has actually come up with some type of vaccination and are actually looking to start with human clinical studies.

While this is really good for that we are trying to make a vaccine, researchers have speculations and wonder if the vaccinations will really help due to they will probably need Zika heavy areas to continue to see if what they are creating actually helps fend off from this nasty virus.  The current vaccine they want to test seems to be  made out of proteins found in mosquito saliva. The product is intended to trigger a human immune system response to the mosquito’s saliva and any viruses mixed with it.  The vaccine is currently going through or have just gone through Phase I trials.

The whole trials are a series of test and regulations to see if its safe before trial on humans and then its release to the whole public to be used. They aren’t quite sure if this whole outbreak last year is going to be yearly or if it was a one time explosion, but they are preparing. Scientist are also tracking the mosquito populations in states such as Texas. The one good thing that will come from this is that we will gain further knowledge and this may be able to help us with future vector borne viruses in the future.

New Evidence to the Fall of an Ancient Latin America Empire

salmonella

The Aztec Empire, one of the most famous and most notable Empires in history especially throughout Latin America. It was dated to have first come about and around through what is now modern day Central America in the country of Mexico. The Empire was founded around 1428 and lasted roughly around a hundred years although this ancient group of people had quite a functional and one could argue a civilized empire. But how could a people who were fairly well adapted around this time have vanished after not being around for quite a century? That’s right you guessed it, it was due to the Europeans.

To be politically correct it was actually impart due to Conquistadors, or the explorers/conquerors for the Spanish Empire were the ones to have utterly crushed this empire, which was roughly estimated with a population to be as high as 25 million versus the small Spanish forces. It wasn’t so much  that the Europeans were better equipped and were more technologically advanced than the Natives that brought the Aztecs to their demise, it was actually due to a much smaller and more dangerous adversary…. a deadly form of Salmonella which came from Europe.

In a pair of recent studies, they have suggested and seemed to have found that from recovered DNA of the stomach bacterium from burials in Mexico which can be traced back to the 1540s, it is said that this caused an epidemic that wiped out up to 80% of the country’s native inhabitants. They traced this and look back to when Hernando Cortés a famous Spanish Conquistador came pretty much after a century helped plummet that population to 1 million. They believe one of the largest of the outbreaks, Cocoliztli killed many people and that in cities/large towns would big huge unmarked graves and dump the dead within them. microbiologistFrom this scientist gathered from using DNA and genetics to sequence DNA from 29 people buried and almost all were linked to Cocoliztli, and further sequencing of short damaged DNA showed and allowed the team to remake two genonmes of Salmonella enterica known as Paratyphi C. It is actually still found today and causes typhus like illness and is in most developing places, and if left untreated kills 10-15%.

Some things to consider is that modern medicine helps a lot and they didn’t have the same treatment to counter this threat. Also there is a question of origin which they think it came from Europe which if that is the case, this would leave the Natives to almost no immunity because they didn’t have contact with Europeans prior. Due to the lack of Sanitary conditions as well, this may have been a thriving source for Salmonella.

This is important because we have a better idea of what happened and can now trace ancient pathogens and the team looks to continue its findings and study other places such as in the Caribbean burial sites.

New Beetle Species Discovered!

beetle

Take a second and look at the photographs above. Do you notice something particularly off or strange about this ant? Well if you fail to notice what is off with this ant, don’t be too sad, entomologist almost missed it too. In fact entomologist looking at this picture had to analyze it several times due to a pondering question of “why does this ant have two abdomens?” In fact scientist are now happy to announce that they have found a new species of beetle named: Nymphista Kronaeuri

Found on the small Latin American Country of Coasta Rica, in the rainforest they found this new species of beetle attached to and riding along an army ant. Interestingly enough this beetle has extremely strong pinches to latch up on the ant and a remarkable color which helps it camouflage against predators and even in fact the army ant that it is attached to.

These army ants in Coasta Rica, live in huge colonies that can range from hundreds to  thousands of these arthropods. However sometimes they can migrate in a nomadic sort of manner usually during the Queen Ant’s breeding season, where they travel up to 3 weeks and gather a mass amount of food in the process when the colony moves. Along with them this new species of beetles hitchhike on usually medium size worker ants that are towards the end of the colony. When the ants sleep, they usually are quite close around as well. Interestingly enough scientist aren’t exactly sure why they do this.

However what they do know is that they aren’t the only insects to do this, but seemingly they are the one and only or are few to have evolved and hide from their chauffeurs. Discoveries like this show us how much we still don’t know.